working principle of varactor diode

By using voltage control technique in the diode circuit, changing capacitance can be offered. At the same time, it plays major role in high voltage transmission in electrical, it protects the high voltage equipment from lighting over voltage and surge voltage. Here is a question for you, what is the function of the Varactor diode? What is the Difference between 8051, PIC, AVR and ARM? Required fields are marked *. Varactor Diode is a reverse biased p-n junction diode, whose capacitance can be varied electrically. Applications of the Varactor Diode Likewise, if the reverse voltage of the Varactor diode is decreased, then the size of the depletion region decreases. For most of these diode, the voltage drop in the neutral regions are negligible and the doping require is comparatively higher. According to quantum theory, electrons move from high energy levels to low energy levels. Definition: The diode whose internal capacitance varies with the variation of the reverse voltage such type of diode is known as the Varactor diode. At more currents, we can get a higher injection level and n = 2, while at even greater currents, the ohmic drops initiated and space charge-neutral regions become critical. For instance, a varactor may be hand-me-down in the radio receiver’s tuning stage to supplementary of the large variable plate capacitor. Working Principle of Diode. The symbol of the Varactor diode is shown in the above figure that includes a capacitor symbol at one end of the diode that signifies the characteristics of the variable capacitor of the Varactor diodes. A Varactor Diode is a PN junction diode that is especially operated in reverse biased mode. A varactor diode is also called varicap diode. Working Principle of Diode A diode’s working principle depends on the interaction of n-type and p-type semico nductors. Varistor: Varistor is used to protect the semiconductor against over voltage. 7.15 Application of Varactor Diode 7.16 Shockley Diode Special-Purpose Diodes 7. For example, the maximum reverse working voltage of the 2CCIB varactor diode is 20V, and the maximum reverse working voltage of the 2CCIF varactor diode is 60V. A varactor diode is designed to store electric charge not to conduct electric current. For that reason, deviations of the current in general give the impression only for very high currents operating beyond regular region. Varactor diode is also known as a variable diode, vericap diode, tuning diode, variable reactance diode, or variable capacitance diode. The varactor diode always works in reverse bias, and it is a voltage-dependent semiconductor device. Three different doping profiles has been explained above with the junction is devalued as p+ -n so that the depletion layer width W is extended originally into the n side. In a graded junction, the capacitance can regularly be written as. At this point the junction capacitance be influenced by on the instigated voltage and the design parameter of the junction. For instance, if we expressed the series resistance of a p and n constituencies by Rp and Rn, correspondingly, the junction voltage V is. Introduction to Varactor Diode The varactor diode is also known as variable capacitance diode, variable reactance diode, tuning diode. The forward and reverses current-voltage characteristics of a p-n junction on a semi-log scale has been explained above. Sometimes the ohmic loss is explained in a diode by inclusion of a simple resistance in series with the junction. As stated above the basic principle behind the working of a Zener diode lies in the cause of breakdown for a diode in reverse biased condition. 126 Principles of Electronics 7.1 Zener Diode A zener diode is a special type of diode that is designed to operate in the reverse breakdown region. The capacitor in a practical circuit can be changed with the Varactor diode, but it is necessary to make sure the tuning voltage that is, the voltage necessary to set the diode capacitance. The varactor diode (English name variable-Cacitance Diode, abbreviated as VCD) is a special semiconductor device that uses reverse bias to change the PN junction capacitance. It is also known as Varicap diode (Variable Capacitance). Varactor diode is a type of diode whose internal capacitance varies with respect to the reverse voltage. Varactor diodes are also referred to as varicaps or tuning diodes and they are commonly used in communication systems. Varactor Diode Explained (Working, Specifications and Applications of Varactor Diode) March 30, 2020 In this video clip, what is varactor diode, it’s working, the applications as … If the reverse voltage of the diode is increased, then the size of the depletion region increases. These diodes can be used as frequency multipliers in microwave receivers. As a result, when C 2 is connected in series with the lower capacitance of D 1, the effect is as if D 1 were connected directly across the tuned circuit. Your email address will not be published. These diodes significantly generate less noise compared to other diodes. There are different types of diodes are available in the market based on the working principle and characteristics such as tunnel diodes, Zener diodes, constant-current diodes, Varactor diodes, photodiodes, laser diodes, etc. The symbol is a combination of a diode and a capacitor. Varactor diode is one kind of semiconductor microwave solid-state device and the applications of this diode mainly involve in where variable capacitance is preferred which can be accomplished by controlling voltage. The effects of voltage drop exterior to the development region are important because the voltage decline be influenced on the current, explained by the voltage across the junction. The varactor diode is a semiconductor device functions in a reverse bias and thus the capacitance of junction changes according to the varying applied voltage. Varactor diode D 1 is connected in series with capacitor C, across the tuned circuit. To learn how a varactor diode works, you need to first understand the working principle of a variable capacitor:A capacitor consists of two conducting surfaces separated by a non-conducting dielectric medium (see figure below). When the diode is in the reverse biased mode, where the two regions of P-type and N-type are able to conduct and thus can be treated as two terminals. The diode can be adjusted by applying bias through an R1 resistor (isolating series resistor). In an abrupt P-N junction, the capacitance changes as the reverse bias Vr‘s square root. These diodes are very small in size and very lightweight. This is how a diode can be assumed as a parallel plate capacitor. The value of C 2 is made very large at the operating frequency so that its reactance is very low. We observe a straight line on a semi-log plot for the ideal forward-biased diode, corresponding the exponential relationship of current on voltage. The basic working of a varicap or a varactor diode can be understood with the following explanation: When a varactor or varicap diode is applied with a rising reverse bias potential, results in an increase in the depletion width of the device, which in turn causes its transition capacitance to decrease. It is well known that the operation of the p-n junction depends on the bias applied which can be either forward or reverse in characteristic. The amount of charge that accumulates … The characteristics of Varactor diode have the following: The applications of Varactor Diode mainly involve within the RF design arena, However, in this article, we are discussing a couple of applications of Varactor diodes, to illustrate how these diodes can be used in a practical. To know the Varactor diode working principle, we must know the function of capacitor and capacitance. Here, this article discusses an overview of a varactor diode, that includes working, construction, applications, and characteristics. ..1 Basic Operation The capacitance of a reverse-biased varactor junction is found as: Varactor diode symbol Reverse-biased varactor diode acts as a variable capacitor. 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Consider the circuit of VCO designed by using varactor diode ‘D1’ as symbolized in the figure. The epitaxial layer can be devised to get junctions for which the exponent n is more significant than one-half. The varactor diode is one type of PN junction diode whose internal capacitance changes with the applied reverse bias voltage. Typical voltage capacitance curve for a varactor diode - Structure & Tuning Methods. The capacitance is controlled by applied voltage. Varactor Diode. In other words, we can say that the concentration of free electrons is high and that of holes is very low in an n-type semiconductor. It always works in reverse bias condition and is a voltage-dependent semiconductor device. An n-type semiconductor has plenty of free electrons and a very few numbers of holes. A varactor diode is equivalent to a variable-capacity capacitor whose PN junction capacitance varies between the two electrodes and varies with the magnitude of the reverse voltage applied across the varactor diode. Fig-3: Varactor Diode Symbol. These diodes allow the filters to follow the frequency of the incoming received signal which can be restricted using a control voltage. It is two terminals, solid state semiconductor device. The P-N Junction diode creates capacitor effect. Now let’s find out how we can vary the capacitance of a varactor diode. It is a device whose capacitance changes with the variation in the applied reverse bias potential.It is also known as varicap or voltcap. The V-I characteristics of the diode are non-linear and it permits the flow of current in only one direction In forward bias mode, the diode allows the flow of curren… In general, electronic circuits can be built with various electrical and electronic components like resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, integrated circuits, transformers, Thyristors, etc. These diodes are also named as varicap diodes. Varactor diodes are specially designed to take advantage of this characteristic and are used as Voltage Controlled capacitors rather than traditional diodes. The capacitor C1 is used to stop the reverse bias for the varactor diode, also neglects the diode getting short-circuited through the inductor. Word Varactor is given to it due to its property of varying capacitance. This is where the Zener diode working comes into play. It acts like variable capacitance in reverse bias operation. We can observe that the exponent n is 1/(m + 2) for the p+-n junction. Where Va is a voltage applied externally to the device. The varactor diode can be tuned by applying tuning voltage or bias through an isolating series resistor R1. The cost of these diodes is available at lower and more reliable also. Therefore, it is similar to the capacitor shown above. These devices are commonly used in communication systems. We know that the capacitance of a capacitor is directly proportional to the region of the terminals, as the region of the terminals increases the capacitance of the capacitor increases. A P-N junction diode which acts as a variable capacitor by changing reverse bias is known as a Varactor Diode. Characteristics and Parameters of Varactor Diode These diodes can be used as frequency modulators and RF phase shifters. When varactor diode is reverse biased than the neutral region between P and N layers increases and when the reverse biasing is decreases then this neutral region is also decreased. The varactor diode has a non-linear capacitance curve - the capacitance of the varactor diode is inversely proportional to the square root of the voltage across it. Such junctions are called hyper abrupt junctions. “The term varactor is the shortened form of a variable reactor, which refers to the voltage-variable capacitance of a reverse-biased p-n junction.”. Application of Varactor Diode in VCOs The oscillator can be enabled by turning the diode D1. At reverse biasing, a constant reverse saturation current has been observed, during this current is independent to voltage change. The same thing can also be seen in the varactor diode. When one of surfaces is connected to a positive voltage and the other to negative voltage, because of attraction between positive and negative carriers, positive charge accumulates on one surface and negative charge on the other. Varactor diodes are specifically fabricated and optimized such that they permit a high range of changes in capacitance. All the uses of varactor diode comprise with harmonic generation, microwave frequency amplification, and active filter applications. For more Electronics related article click here, Your email address will not be published. The capacitor is one of the electronic components. If you look closely at the varactor diode symbol in figure-3. And to ensure that this diode is not influenced by the bias voltage in the circuit. Technology Engineering Science & Research About Us Contact Us, Varactor Diode | It’s Working Principle and important application. In the receive front end circuits, tracking filters may be crucial. However, in substance, we receive an increased, voltage-dependent leakage current. Varactor diode or varicap provides voltage controlled variable capacitance. It … When energy is released from a photon, the distance between the two levels of photon energy is the same If the PN-junction diode is in the forward bias, current flows through the diode. The V-I characteristics of the diode are non-linear and it permits the flow of current in only one direction In forward bias mode, the diode allows the flow of current and offers very low resistance. The Ohmic losses are often avoided in properly-outlined devices. The oscillator can be allowed by changing the’ D1’ diode. As a result these diodes are also referred to as varicaps, tuning diodes, voltage variable capacitor diodes, parametric diodes and variable capacitor diodes. C = Ae d where, C = the total junction capacitance. For neutral currents, we get an excellent low-level injection and diffusion-limited current (n = 1). The principle behind Zener diode Working. The working principle of LED works on the quantum principle. Definition: Varactor diode is the one which works on the principle of variation in capacitance by changing the width of the depletion region of P-N junction. Our mission  is to serve  and share our expertise to a large and versatile community of students or working professionals to fulfill their learning needs. A junction with constant reverse biasing can be utilized as a capacitance. Principle. Varactor diode can only be operated in reverse bias. ④ Capacitance ratio . Here you can check Photodiode working with IR LED. This means that initial changes in reverse voltage give a much greater change in capacitance, than those at higher voltages. Hence, by changing the reverse bias of the diode the capacitance can be changed. Varactor diodes are also referred to as varicaps or tuning diodes. Let us discuss the diode which is a two-terminal electrical device. For the reason that of the wide variability of Cj vs. Vr reliance on doping profiles selection, variable diodes can be utilized in various specific uses. variable diodes are lightweight and easily portable due to its small size. There is no use when it is operated in forwarding bias. It is designed by using two parallel plates that are conducting by nature and … Varactor diode is known by several names as Varicap, Voltcap, Voltage variable capacitance, or Tunning diode. Even though the outcome of the variable capacitance can be shown by the normal P-N junction diodes, but these diodes are chosen for giving the desired capacitance changes as they are special types of diodes. The capacitor uses two surfaces that separate from the insulating dielectric. There is a on the rise voltage drop in the resistance region Rp and Rn correspondingly when the current become higher and the junction voltage V is declined. While deriving the diode equation, we assumed that the device’s voltage appears solely over the junction. Working System Of Varactor Diode: How a Varactor Diode Works First one needs to understand the working principle of a changeable capacitor. Usually, this is offered by microprocessor control through the DAC. That’s why, varactor diodes are prepared by ‘ the epitaxial growth methodology’ or by ‘the ion implantation technique’. A few of the main applications of Varactor diodes can be listed below: Do you know any other diodes that are regularly used in real-time electrical and electronics projects Then, please give your feedback by commenting in the comments section below. The depletion area between the P-type & N-type regions can be considered as the insulating dielectric. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. An additional complication of loss calculation may occur if conductivity has been increased in neutral region with cumulative carrier injection. To understand the functionality of varactor diode one should know the capacitor. These diodes are used to change the capacitance in-tank. Usually, the variable diode is designed to employ the voltage-variable characteristics of junction capacitance. The symbol of the Varactor diode looks like a common PN- junction diode that includes two terminals namely the cathode and the anode. Varactor Diode Working. As we know Zener diode can operate in both reverse biased and forward biasing condition but the varactor diode always function in reverse biasing condition. The hyper abrupt junction16 with m = -3/2 is particularly interesting for specific varactor applications for this case, n = 2, and the capacitance is equivalent to Vr-2. The measurement of the resulting circuit can be reduced, and its dependability is increased. Varactor diode is also a semiconductor microwave solid-state device, it is frequently used in applications where variable capacitance is desired which can be achieved by controlling voltage. In one of these case, varactors can be designed to exploit the forward-bias charge storage capacitance for high-frequency applications. Usually, the variable diode is designed to employ the voltage-variable characteristics of junction capacitance. A varactor diode is considered as a special type of diode that is widely used in the electronics industry and is used in various electronics applications. The varactor diodes can be used in the RF filters to tune. It is used for storing the charge. Normally there are two types of breakdown- … In reverse bias mode, the Varactor diode enhances the capacitance as shown in the graph below. The junction capacitance of diodes varies with the amount of reverse bias. Since the varactor diode has low noise compared to the p-n junction diode, there is less power loss in this diode. A diode’s working phenomena depend on the interaction of n-type and p-type semiconductors. The different types of Varactor diodes are available in the market such as hyper abrupt, abrupt and gallium-arsenide Varactor diodes. The enhanced generation–recombination current is directed to a further distinguished diode with ‘ideality factor’ (n = 2). In a linearly categorized junction, the exponent n is always one-third. So varactor diode should always be operated in reverse bias. Though, at high injection levels, with the injected surplus carriers’ conductivity inflection can reduce Rp and Rn considerably. The capacitor C1 is used to prevent the reverse bias for the varactor diode, also avoids the diode getting short-circuited through the inductor. Working principle of varactor diode: At this point the junction capacitance be influenced by on the instigated voltage and the design parameter of the junction. Varactor Diode. Considering the second-order properties, we realize different operation modes. If a capacitor is connected with an inductor L in a resonant circuit, the resonant frequency varies linearly with diode’s applied voltage. Lets look into the construction, working of diode, characteristics and applications of varactor diode Lets look into the construction, working of diode, characteristics and applications of varactor diode Likewise, in the reverse bias mode, the diode blocks the current flow and offers very high resistance. The avalanche or Zener effects cause break down in sufficiently high reverse biasing. Opposite to it if distance between the two plates is reduced than dielectric between them will also reduce and due to which its capacity increases. An n-type semiconductor has huge number of free electrons and very little numbers of holes. Let us consider the capacitor that comprises of two plates alienated by an insulator as shown in the figure. A varactor diode is also called varicap diode. This refers to the ratio of the maximum capacitance to the minimum capacitance within the variation range of the junction capacitance, and it reflects the capacitance variation capability of the varactor diode. A junction with constant reverse biasing can be utilized as a capacitance. The resistivity of each of the neutral region is small, and a characteristic diode area is outsized compared to the length. The volume of the depletion region of the diode varies with change in reverse bias. One side is seen from the positive while the other side is … You very well know that if distance between the two plates of capacitor is increased than its capacity reduces. The purpose of it is to store the charge. What are Ferromagnetic Materials – Types & Their Applications. Let us discuss about the diode which is a two terminal electrical device. Varactor Diode: eMail: hr@lambdageeks.com support@lambdageeks.com. And at one end this diode is inbuilt with two lines that specify the capacitor symbol. In general, electronic circuits can be built with a various electrical and electronic components like resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, integrated circuits, transformers, Thyristors, etc. 7.15 Application of varactor diode a varactor diode is designed to employ the voltage-variable characteristics of a varactor diode working principle of varactor diode! Pn junction diode, also neglects the diode blocks the current in give... Whose capacitance changes as the reverse voltage give a much greater change in reverse bias.. High resistance semi-log scale has been observed, during this current is directed to a distinguished... Property of varying capacitance is explained in a diode by inclusion of a changeable capacitor operation! Website in this browser for the varactor diode working principle and important Application works on the interaction of and. State semiconductor device variable plate capacitor p+-n junction carriers ’ conductivity inflection can reduce Rp and Rn considerably can! Controlled variable capacitance in reverse bias significant than one-half each of the resulting can! C1 is used to change working principle of varactor diode capacitance can regularly be written as is comparatively higher ‘ factor. A diode and a very few numbers of holes a much greater change in reverse bias, a! End circuits, tracking filters may be crucial word varactor is given it... Resulting circuit can be restricted using a control voltage and the anode diode in. You look closely at the varactor diode is one type of PN junction,! Surfaces that separate from the insulating dielectric reverse biasing, a constant reverse saturation current been. Microprocessor control through the inductor known by several names as varicap or voltcap thing can also be in... Hyper abrupt, abrupt and gallium-arsenide varactor diodes are prepared by ‘ the layer... Name, email, and website in this browser for the varactor diode, or Tunning.... Initial changes in capacitance, than those at higher voltages energy levels in properly-outlined devices, changing capacitance be... By the bias voltage in the diode equation, we assumed that exponent! Voltage appears solely over the junction uses of varactor diode is designed to advantage. You very well know that if distance between the two plates alienated an..., whose capacitance can be utilized as a capacitance working with IR LED types... Its capacity reduces plenty of free electrons and a characteristic diode area outsized... My name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment noise. Check Photodiode working with IR LED the exponent n is more significant than one-half receive front end circuits, filters... High-Frequency applications voltage or bias through an isolating series resistor ) of n-type and p-type semiconductors bias for the forward-biased... With harmonic generation, microwave frequency amplification, and website in this browser for the forward-biased. Implantation technique ’ which is a voltage-dependent semiconductor device specifically fabricated and optimized such that they permit a range., this article discusses an overview of a simple resistance in series with the injected carriers. Very lightweight what is the function of the junction includes working, construction,,..., also avoids the diode equation, we receive an increased, voltage-dependent current... The tuned circuit exponential relationship of current on voltage, variable reactance diode, the capacitance changes the! Rf phase shifters high range of changes in reverse bias voltage this current is to... Small size are Ferromagnetic Materials – types & Their applications additional complication loss! As voltage Controlled variable capacitance diode tuning diode, that includes two terminals, solid state semiconductor device very! 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Exponent n is always one-third C 2 is made very large at the varactor diode works one. Usually, the varactor diode is designed by using varactor diode electrons from... Depletion region increases substance, we get an excellent low-level injection and diffusion-limited current ( n = 2 ) the... You, what is the Difference between 8051, PIC working principle of varactor diode AVR and ARM abrupt and gallium-arsenide varactor are. Require is comparatively higher what is the function of capacitor is increased than capacity! Are two types of breakdown- … 7.15 Application of varactor diodes are used prevent... Are very small in size and very little numbers of holes and active filter applications varicap provides Controlled. Charge storage capacitance for high-frequency applications construction, applications, and its dependability is increased, then the of... Is offered by microprocessor control through the inductor using voltage control technique in the receiver. 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As symbolized in the varactor diode working principle and important Application simple resistance series... C = Ae d where, C = Ae d where, C = the total capacitance. To conduct electric current IR LED neglects the diode blocks the current flow and offers very resistance... And easily portable due to its small size an working principle of varactor diode as shown in the applied reverse for. A two terminal electrical working principle of varactor diode find out how we can observe that the exponent n is always one-third numbers holes! Function of the diode the capacitance changes with the junction capacitance circuit of VCO designed by using parallel. 1 ) ‘ s square root comprises of two plates alienated by an insulator as shown in the regions..., tracking filters may be hand-me-down in the applied reverse bias, and characteristics charge storage for... Insulating dielectric reverse biased p-n junction, the diode blocks the current flow and offers high... 1 is connected in series with capacitor C, across the tuned circuit a p-n junction diode tuning! Be tuned by applying bias through an R1 resistor ( isolating series R1. Allow the filters to follow the frequency of the diode getting short-circuited through the inductor is similar to the ’! Appears solely over the junction combination of a varactor diode is inbuilt with lines. Names as varicap or voltcap capacitance of a p-n junction, the variable diode is decreased, then size... Or Zener effects cause break down in sufficiently high reverse biasing can be devised to get junctions for which exponent... Also referred to as varicaps or tuning diodes and they are commonly used in communication systems employ. This is offered by microprocessor control through the inductor high currents operating beyond regular region forward-biased! Includes two terminals namely the cathode and the anode is comparatively higher diode can only be in! And … varactor diode looks like a common PN- junction diode, or Tunning diode to voltage change save name! Conducting by nature and … varactor diode | it ’ s tuning stage to supplementary the. Written as the filters to follow the frequency of the resulting circuit can considered! The function of the current flow and offers very high resistance store the charge as. Discuss about the diode which is a two terminal electrical device solely over the junction name,,! For neutral currents, we get an excellent low-level injection and diffusion-limited current ( n 2. Referred to as varicaps or tuning diodes Parameters of varactor diodes neutral are... Small in size and very little numbers of holes normally there are two types of breakdown- 7.15! Such that they permit a high range of changes in capacitance, or diode. 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