Victory over Maxentius gave Constantine, #6 Constantine became the sole Emperor of the Roman Empire in 324 AD, The relations between Constantine and Licinius began to deteriorate after an assassination attempt on Constantine by a man Licinius wanted to be Caesar and over Licinius restarting to oppress Christians. Several towns and cities held by Maxentius surrendered in the next few months and Constantine then marched towards Rome where Maxentius had prepared for a siege. Potter is generally thoughtful and circumspect in his sifting of the material. Constantine I was born Flavius Valerius Constantinus around 280 AD in the city of Naissus in the province of Moesia, what is now the city of Niš in southern Serbia. After the death of his father on July 25, 306 AD, Constantine’s supporters proclaimed him as Augustus, though Galerius, who was Augustus at the time, granted him the title of Caesar. Constantine the Great Wikipedia. A popular myth arose, modified to allude to the Hippolytus–Phaedra legend, with the suggestion that Constantine killed Crispus and Fausta for their immoralities; the largely fictional Passion of Artemius explicitly makes this connection. Licinius, one of Galerius' old military companions, was appointed augustus in the western regions. , The reign of Constantine established a precedent for the emperor to have great influence and authority in the early Christian councils, most notably the dispute over Arianism. [page needed] This removed penalties for professing Christianity, under which many had been martyred previously, and it returned confiscated Church property.  He supported the Church financially, built basilicas, granted privileges to clergy (such as exemption from certain taxes), promoted Christians to high office, and returned property confiscated during the long period of persecution. He was written up as a "tyrant" and set against an idealized image of Constantine the "liberator". 40 minute audio lecture on Constantine. , The third century saw runaway inflation associated with the production of fiat money to pay for public expenses, and Diocletian tried unsuccessfully to re-establish trustworthy minting of silver and billon coins.  He built a new imperial residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople (now Istanbul) after himself (the laudatory epithet of "New Rome" emerged in his time, and was never an official title). The failure resided in the fact that the silver currency was overvalued in terms of its actual metal content, and therefore could only circulate at much discounted rates.  Constantine took the title Dacicus maximus in 336.  The fullest secular life of Constantine is the anonymous Origo Constantini, a work of uncertain date, which focuses on military and political events to the neglect of cultural and religious matters. It will be finished under Justinian I in 537. Galerius refused to recognize him but failed to unseat him. Before dying, he declared his support for raising Constantine to the rank of full augustus.  It was not to be: Constantius and Galerius were promoted to augusti, while Severus and Maximinus Daia, Galerius' nephew, were appointed their caesars respectively. Special commemorative coins were issued in 330 to honor the event. Relations between the two remaining emperors deteriorated, as Constantine suffered an assassination attempt at the hands of a character that Licinius wanted elevated to the rank of Caesar; Licinius, for his part, had Constantine's statues in Emona destroyed.  Ruricius gave Constantine the slip and returned with a larger force to oppose Constantine. After a series of civil wars that followed, Constantine the Great became sole Emperor of the Roman Empire in 324 A.D. and therefore became the founder of the “ Constantinian dynasty ,” also referred to as the “ Neo-Flavian Dynasty .” Constantine was able to spend a year in northern Britain at his father's side, campaigning against the Picts beyond Hadrian's Wall in the summer and autumn.  Because Diocletian did not completely trust Constantius—none of the Tetrarchs fully trusted their colleagues—Constantine was held as something of a hostage, a tool to ensure Constantius' best behavior.  His most famous building projects include the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Old Saint Peter's Basilica. Being the primary candidate for future appointment as Caesar, Constantine was sent to the court of Diocletian, where he received a formal education learning Latin literature, Greek, and philosophy. The couple had a son named Crispus.  It was made illegal for Jews to seek converts or to attack other Jews who had converted to Christianity. Maxentius rode with them and attempted to cross the bridge of boats (Ponte Milvio), but he was pushed into the Tiber and drowned by the mass of his fleeing soldiers.  Their names were wiped from the face of many inscriptions, references to their lives were eradicated from the literary record, and the memory of both was condemned. He requested the baptism right away, promising to live a more Christian life should he live through his illness. Carrié & Rousselle, p.657 citing T.D.  Constantine, with a spirit that left a deep impression on his followers, inspiring some to believe that he had some form of supernatural guidance, ignored all these cautions.  In July, he had his wife Empress Fausta (stepmother of Crispus) killed in an overheated bath. Maximinus Daia was frustrated that he had been passed over for promotion while the newcomer Licinius had been raised to the office of augustus and demanded that Galerius promote him.  In either 314 or 316 AD, the two Augusti fought against one another at the Battle of Cibalae, with Constantine being victorious. Kōnstantînos; 27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. By adopting Christianity as the religion of the vast Roman Empire, he elevated a once illegal cult to the law of the land. It is estimated that Constantine was born in the late 280s AD in the city of Naissus, in present day Serbia.  Constantine also attempted to remove Maxentius' influence on Rome's urban landscape. After a long evening of drinking, Galerius granted the request.  He began minting coins with his father's deified image, proclaiming his desire to avenge Maximian's death.  Constantius' campaign, like that of Septimius Severus before it, probably advanced far into the north without achieving great success. When not campaigning, he toured his lands advertising his benevolence and supporting the economy and the arts.  Maximian ruled in the West, from his capitals at Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) or Augusta Treverorum (Trier, Germany), while Diocletian ruled in the East, from Nicomedia (İzmit, Turkey). , On 1 May AD 305, Diocletian, as a result of a debilitating sickness taken in the winter of AD 304–305, announced his resignation. Constantine deployed his own forces along the whole length of Maxentius' line.  The oration's religious shift is paralleled by a similar shift in Constantine's coinage. His head was paraded through the streets. Know more about the life, reign, accomplishments, death and contribution to Christianity of Constantine the Great through these 10 interesting facts. Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Diocletian's first appointee for the office of Caesar was Constantius; his second was Galerius, a native of Felix Romuliana. Drake, "The Impact of Constantine on Christianity" (CC), 126.  Constantius had become severely sick over the course of his reign, and died on 25 July 306 in Eboracum. In February 313, he met with Licinius in Milan and developed the Edict of Milan, which stated that Christians should be allowed to follow their faith without oppression. Generations later there was the story that a divine vision led Constantine to this spot, and an angel no one else could see led him on a circuit of the new walls. Constantine was a ruler of major importance, and he has always been a controversial figure. He may have attended the lectures of Lactantius, a Christian scholar of Latin in the city. To combat inflation he introduced the solidus, a new gold coin that became the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years.  The nearest replacement is Eusebius's Vita Constantini—a mixture of eulogy and hagiography written between AD 335 and circa AD 339—that extols Constantine's moral and religious virtues.  His horse guards and praetorians initially held their position, but they broke under the force of a Constantinian cavalry charge; they also broke ranks and fled to the river.  The ecclesiastical histories of Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret describe the ecclesiastic disputes of Constantine's later reign.  The Legio II Parthica was removed from Albano Laziale, and the remainder of Maxentius' armies were sent to do frontier duty on the Rhine.  Wishing to make it clear that he alone gave Constantine legitimacy, Galerius personally sent Constantine the emperor's traditional purple robes.  At the focal point of the basilica, a stone statue was erected of Constantine holding the Christian labarum in its hand. Maximian had been sent south to Arles with a contingent of Constantine's army, in preparation for any attacks by Maxentius in southern Gaul.  His advisers calmed him, and argued that outright denial of Constantine's claims would mean certain war. , Constantine was presented as an ideal ruler during the Middle Ages, the standard against which any king or emperor could be measured. Constantine was the first Roman emperor to profess Christianity.  His military skill and building projects, however, soon gave the panegyrist the opportunity to comment favourably on the similarities between father and son, and Eusebius remarked that Constantine was a "renewal, as it were, in his own person, of his father's life and reign". Colossal head of Constantine (4th century). As emperor, Constantine enacted administrative, financial, social and military reforms to strengthen the empire. Exclusion of the old senatorial aristocracy threatened this arrangement. 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